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马耳他共和国(马耳他语:Repubblika ta' Malta,英语:Republic of Malta)是欧洲南部岛国,由地中海一些岛屿组成。由于其重要的战略地理位置,几个世纪来先后被不同的军事力量征服和统治过。

目录

 [隐藏] 
  • 1 词源
  • 2 历史
    • 2.1 Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans
    • 2.2 中古世纪
    • 2.3 马耳他骑士团和拿破仑
    • 2.4 大英帝国和二战
    • 2.5 马耳他共和国
  • 3 政治
  • 4 地理
    • 4.1 气候
  • 5 经济
  • 6 人口
  • 7 文化
    • 7.1 美食
    • 7.2 特别活动
  • 8 参考资料
  • 9 外部链接

词源

“马耳他”一词当今不同的变体尽管起源于马耳他系语言,但其起源无从考究。通常的词源学说法认为它来自于希腊语中μ?λι(音meli)一词,意为“蜜”。希腊人称这个岛为Μελ?τη(音Melite),意指“蜜”或是“甘甜”,这可能是由于马耳他岛出产一种独特的蜜。马耳他曾居住着一种土产蜜蜂,使得它被昵称为“甜蜜之地”。不仅希腊人早在前700年就对马耳他岛富有影响,使用希腊语的拜占庭帝国也在公元395年至公元870年间统治过马耳他。

另一种说法认为“马耳他”来自于腓尼基语词“Maleth”,意为避风港。

历史

主条目:马耳他历史

公元前10世纪起,腓尼基人便在此定居,前8世纪马耳他被希腊人占领,前4世纪又被迦太基占领。前218年始被古罗马统治。

9世纪起马耳他又先后被拜占庭帝国、阿拉伯帝国、诺曼人统治。1523年,圣约翰骑士团从罗得岛移居这里,并获得神圣罗马帝国皇帝查理五世的承认。这支骑士团后改名为马耳他骑士团。1565年的马耳他大围攻战役中,骑士团击败了奥斯曼帝国,此次战役是马耳他历史上最重大的事件,因为它阻止了奥斯曼帝国进一步向西扩张。

1798年,拿破仑率法国军队将骑士团逐出。1800年英国占领马耳他。1814年正式沦为英国殖民地。1964年9月21日正式独立,为英联邦成员国。

Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans

Around 700 BC, the Ancient Greeks settled on Malta, especially around the area where Valletta now stands.[1] A century later, Phoenician traders, who used the islands as a stop on their trade routes from the eastern Mediterranean to Cornwall, joined the natives on the island.The Phoenicians inhabited the area now known as Mdina, and its surrounding town of Rabat, which they called Maleth. The Romans, who also lived in Mdina, referred to it (and the island) as Melita.[2]

Roman mosaic from Rabat, Malta.

After the fall of Phoenicia, in 400 BC the area came under the control of Carthage, a former Phoenician colony. During this time the people on Malta mainly cultivated olives and carobs, and produced textiles.

During the First Punic War of 264 BC, tensions led the Maltese people to rebel against Carthage and turn control of their garrison over to the Roman consul Sempronius.[2] Malta remained loyal to Rome during the Second Punic War and the Romans rewarded it with the title Foederata Civitas, a designation that meant it was exempt from paying tribute or the rule of Roman law, although at this time it fell within the jurisdiction of the province of Sicily.

By 117 AD, the Maltese Islands were a thriving part of the Roman Empire, being promoted to the status of Municipium under Hadrian.[2] Catacombs in Rabat testify to an early Christian community on the islands, and the Acts of the Apostles recount the shipwreck of St Paul and his ministry on the island (see Religion).

When the Roman Empire split into Eastern and Western divisions in the 4th century, Malta fell under the control of the Greek speaking Byzantine Empire from 395 to 870,[1] which ruled from Constantinople.

中古世纪

Roger I of Sicily returned Malta to Christian rule.
Flag of the Aragonese Kingdom of Sicily.

Malta was involved in the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and the conquest of Malta is closely linked with that of Sicily due to admiral Euphemius' betrayal of his fellow Byzantines, requesting that the Aghlabid dynasty invade the area. As part of the Emirate of Sicily, rule switched to the Fatimids in 909. name="gozmalt" The Arabs introduced new irrigation, some fruits and cotton and the Siculo-Arabic language was adopted on the island from Sicily: it would eventually evolve into the Maltese language.

The native Christians were allowed freedom of religion but had to pay jizya, as Muslims were paying zakat. The Normans, as part of their conquest of Sicily, took Malta in 1091. The local Christians warmly welcomed the arrival of Roger I and offered to fight for him; in response to this, Roger reportedly tore off a portion of his checkered red-and-white banner and presented it to the Maltese, forming the basis of the present-day Maltese flag.

Ottoman map of Malta, by Piri Reis

The Norman period was productive; Malta became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Sicily which also covered the island of Sicily and the southern half of the Italian Peninsula. The Catholic Church was re-instated as the state religion with Malta under the See of Palermo and much Norman architecture sprung up around Malta especially in its ancient capital Mdina. Tancred of Sicily, the last Norman monarch, made Malta a feudal lordship or fief within the kingdom and a Count of Malta instated. As the islands were much desired due to their strategic importance, it was during this time the men of Malta were militarised to fend off capture attempts; the early counts were skilled Genoese corsairs.

The kingdom passed on to the House of Hohenstaufen from 1194 until 1266. Malta was part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation for 72 years. Malta was declared a county and a marquisate, but its trade was totally ruined. For a long time it remained solely a fortified garrison.Montgomery Martin, Robert. History of the colonies of the British Empire, W. H. Allen, 1843, p 569

Malta remained for 72 years subject of the emperors of Germany. The island was after the period of Count Roger of the Normans afterwards given up to the Germans, on account of the marriage between Constance, heiress of Sicily, and Henry VI, son of the Emperor Friedrick Barbarossa. Malta was elevated to a county and a marquisate, but its trade was now totally ruined, and for a considerable period of it remained solely a fortified garrison.

It was in 1224 under Frederick II that all remaining Muslims were expelled from Maltaalta&f=false Google Books] Malta, Mediterranean bridge, Stefan Goodwin 2002. and the entire Christian male population of Celano in Abruzzo was deported to Malta.

Jean Parisot de La Valette, the founder of Valletta

For a brief period the kingdom passed to the Capetian House of Anjou, however high taxes made the dynasty unpopular in Malta, due in part to Charles of Anjou's war against the Republic of Genoa and the island of Gozo was sacked in 1275. A large revolt on Sicily known as the Sicilian Vespers followed these attacks, that saw the Peninsula separating into the Kingdom of Naples; the Kingdom of Sicily, including Malta, then fell under the rule of the Aragonese.

Relatives of the kings of Aragon ruled the island until 1409, when it passed to the Crown of Aragon. Early on in the Aragonese reign the sons of the monarchy received the title, "Count of Malta". It was also during this time that much of the local nobility was created. However by 1397 the bearing of the title "Count of Malta" reverted to a feudal basis with two families fighting over the distinction, which caused much distress. This led the king to abolish the title. Dispute over the title returned when the title was reinstated a few years later and the Maltese, led by the local nobility, rose up against Count Gonsalvo Monroy. Although they opposed the Count, the Maltese voiced their loyalty to the Sicilian Crown, which so impressed Alfonso IV that he did not punish the people for their rebellion but promised never to grant the title to a third party, instead incorporating it back into the crown. The city of Mdina was given the title of Città Notabile as a result of this sequence of events.

马耳他骑士团和拿破仑

参见:医院骑士团
姆迪纳的巴洛克建筑,圣保罗大教堂。

1530年,查理五世永久把马耳他租让予耶路撒冷圣若望医院骑士团,即现今的马耳他骑士团。骑士团早前于1522年被鄂图曼土耳其帝国逐出罗德岛。1551年,巴巴里海盗奴役马耳他附近的岛屿戈佐岛的所有5,000人口,并将他们送往利比亚。1565年,鄂图曼帝国与骑士团发生全面战争,并发动对马耳他的围攻。当时土耳其拥有地中海最强的海军力量。骑士与马耳他的平民奋力抵抗土耳其的进攻,并最后获得胜利。伏尔泰形容1565年的大围攻,"没有什么战役比起马耳他大围攻更有名"("Nothing is more well known than the siege of Malta.")。[3]

经过大围攻后,骑士团决定增强马耳他的防御力,特别是内港地带。骑士团修筑了新城瓦莱塔,以当时骑士团团长琼·帕里斯特·德·拉·瓦莱特(Jean Parisot de la Valette)。骑士团亦沿海岸线修筑了不少瞭望塔。骑士团在岛上完成了很多建筑及文化项目。后来于1675年,一次瘟疫于马耳他爆发,并杀死了6万居民中的约1万1千人。

施洗者约翰被斩首,卡拉瓦乔所画。

骑士团一直控制马耳他,直至拿破仑一世在出发征服埃及前。拿破仑在1798年于途中夺取了马耳他。拿破仑用计夺下城市,他先派人要求进港进行补给。当船只安全进入瓦莱塔港后,拿破仑的战舰将炮口转向他们的招待者。马耳他骑士团团长投降,拿破仑继续停留于马耳他数日,这段时间中他劫掠了岛上很多财富,并建立起傀儡政权统治。然后拿破仑就航向埃及,留下大队驻军。

马耳他居民十分厌恶法国的占领军。法国强加的财政、宗教政策激怒了当地民众,他们起来反抗法军,并逼使他们撤离城市要塞。英国、西西里王国及那不勒斯王国支援岛上反抗者,英国亦派出皇家海军封锁马耳他。1800年,法军投降。马耳他居民的领导者希望马耳他成为英国自治领。马耳他人发表了权利宣言,愿意"归属自由民之国王、大不列颠及爱尔兰国王陛下之保护及统治。"("under the protection and sovereignty of the King of the free people, His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland")。宣言亦表示"陛下无权将岛屿转移他国...若他选择收回其保护、放弃其统治,选择其他统治者的权利,或岛屿的行政,只归属于我们,岛上之居民及原住民,而不受任何控制。"("his Majesty has no right to cede these Islands to any power...if he chooses to withdraw his protection, and abandon his sovereignty, the right of electing another sovereign, or of the governing of these Islands, belongs to us, the inhabitants and aborigines alone, and without control.")。

大英帝国和二战

1942年的马耳他围攻中,受到严重轰炸损毁的瓦莱塔街道。

1814年巴黎条约中,马耳他正式成为大英帝国的一部份,并用作船运中途站及舰队总部。马耳他作为苏伊士运河及直布罗陀海峡之间的中途站,显示出马耳他的重要性,及前往印度的重要中途站。1919年,英国军队镇压了一场反对开征新税的示威,并杀死4名平民。因此掀起了反抗行动,并提升了亲意大利派的影响力,英国统治受到挑战。这次事件每年都有悼念

在1930年代早期,英国地中海舰队离开马耳他,转往亚历山卓。二战期间,马耳他因为接近轴心国的船运航道而有很重要的地位。马耳他居民于围攻时的英勇表现,因而英王乔治六世于1942年4月15日授乔治十字勋章予马耳他,"见证著一种英雄及奉献精神长存历史。"("to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history")。有些史学家认为,英国在防卫马耳他蒙受到不相称的伤亡,只因为若马耳他如新加坡一样投降,英国的信誉会受损。[4]

马耳他共和国

马耳他于1964年9月21日获得独立,但直至其1964年立宪完成前,马耳他基本上仍保留承认伊丽莎白二世为马耳他女王及国家元首,以及作为她代表的总督行使施政权。1974年12月13日,马耳他成为共和国,继续留在英联邦之内,以马耳他总统为国家元首。防卫协议在独立后就签订,直至1979年3月31日期满。

同日英国军队撤军,最后一次降下英国国旗。1980年,马耳他采取中立政策,并成为不结盟运动的一员,直至2004年。1989年,马耳他成为美国及苏联之间高峰会的场地,美国总统乔治·赫伯特·布什与苏共总书记米哈伊尔·戈尔巴乔夫首次面对面会谈,暗示著冷战即将终结。

马耳他在2004年5月1日成为欧盟会员国,在2007年7月22日加入欧元区,在2007年12月21日成为申根公约会员国。

政治

1964年7月21日颁布的独立宪法规定,马耳他为君主立宪制政体,英国女王为马耳他国家元首。1974年12月13日修改宪法,马耳他成为共和国,总统为国家元首,由议会选举产生,任期五年。议会为一院制,称众议院。

地理

马耳他地图
首都瓦莱塔(2004年)

马耳他位于地中海中部,面积316平方公里,北距西西里岛93公里。全国由马耳他岛、戈佐(Gozo)、科米诺(Comino)、科米诺托和菲尔夫拉岛五个小岛组成,其中只有马耳他岛、戈佐、科米诺三岛有人居住。面积最大的马耳他岛,约245平方公里。马耳他岛地势西高东低,以丘陵为主,缺乏淡水。

马耳他分为六个统计区:南港:面积26km2,人口83,234。北部:面积74km2,人口44,852。北港:面积24km2,人口118,409。东南:面积50km2,人口50,650。西部:面积73km2,人口51,961。戈佐-科米诺:面积69km2,人口29,026。

气候

马耳他属亚热带地中海式气候,冬季多雨,夏季高温干燥。

月份 全年 一月 二月 三月 四月 五月 六月 七月 八月 九月 十月 十一月 十二月
平均气温 °C (°F) 18 (66) 12 (54) 12 (54) 13 (56) 15 (60) 18 (66) 22 (73) 26 (79) 26 (79) 24 (76) 21 (70) 16 (62) 13 (57)
平均最高气温 °C (°F) 21 (71) 15 (59) 15 (59) 16 (61) 18 (65) 22 (72) 27 (80) 30 (86) 30 (86) 28 (82) 24 (75) 19 (67) 16 (61)
平均最低气温 °C (°F) 15 (60) 9 (49) 9 (49) 10 (51) 12 (54) 15 (59) 19 (66) 22 (71) 22 (72) 20 (69) 18 (64) 14 (57) 11 (52)
来源: Weatherbase

经济

马耳他巴士
主要公路

马耳他自然资源贫乏,矿产资源仅有石灰岩,又因为土层浅薄,缺乏灌溉水源,马耳他农业不发达,农副产品尚不能自给,粮食、肉禽等主要依赖进口。马耳他经济依靠加工制造业(主要是电子、纺织)、旅游业、国际贸易。马耳他在2004年5月1日成为欧盟成员之一,并于2008年以欧元为货币。

人口

马尔他是世界上人口最稠密的国家之一,每平方千米约1250人。主要是马耳他人,占总人口的九成,其余为阿拉伯人、意大利人、英国人等。官方语言为马耳他语和英语,通用意大利语。天主教为国教,少数人信奉基督教新教和希腊东正教。

文化

Pastizzi,典型马耳他小吃
马耳他面包的一个品种,ftira

马耳他文化是数世纪来不同文化在马耳他岛上相互接触融合的产物,包括邻近的地中海地区的文化以及1964年马耳他独立前曾长期统治管理该地的诸多国家的文化。

美食

马耳他菜是几个世纪以来岛上居民与来马耳他定居的外来者在烹调习惯上互相影响的结果,这种结合使马耳他菜混合了地中海周围各地的饮食口味。尽管许多菜式是岛上特有的,然而一部分很受欢迎的菜式的做法却是源自西西里岛、意大利南部以及中东地区。被当地人称为ftira bi?-?ejt?bejnietpastizzi的食物便是很好的例子。

特别活动

微型飞机俱乐部在最近十年把此航空运动(微型飞机)[1]推展到岛上,并且在十年内总共有22架微型飞机从马耳他国际机场起飞。



 
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